One major aspect of Japanese culture is the depth of love for dolls (Ningyō;人形). Doll culture spread in Japan particularly in the 17th century, and dolls could be found in many facets of daily life, both life in the Japanese imperial court and that of the common people. Furthermore, those dolls were advanced achievements even from the standpoint of modern arts and craftsmanship. The fact that many examples indeed enter the realm of high art is an extremely rare occurrence when compared to the culture of dolls seen elsewhere in the world. Thus it can be said that Japan is truly “a Nation of NINGYŌ”, deeply colored by the superb dolls created here and the long cultural history of valuing them. This exhibition examines Japan’s diverse doll culture from 4 perspectives to introduce the principle types of Japanese dolls and the culture behind each.